Category: Theory


Digital methods for improving microscopic photographs

Digital photography gives the users many new possibilities in improving photographs taken through the microscope. This post gives an overview of the different image processing functions that can be applied to microscopic images.

Different types of microscopes

How many different types of microscopes are there? More than you probably thought.

Increasing Contrast using Optical Methods

Many microscopic specimens are either very thin or transparent or lack color. They lack contrast and can not be easily seen in bright microscope light. In many cases it is not possible or desirable to chemically stain the specimens. In this case, optical techniques become necessary to enhance contrast.

Electron Microscopes vs. Optical (Light) microscopes

This post outlines the advantages and disadvantages of electron microscopes in contrast to optical (light) microscopes. Each type of microscope is designed for different areas of applications.

Advantages of Koehler Illumination

Koehler illumination offers a range of advantages over “critical illumination”. Illumination is more uniform, specimen heating is reduced as well as light reflections for photographic work.

The Condenser Aperture Diaphragm

In this post, the function of the condenser aperture diaphragm is explained. The purpose of the condenser is to concentrate the light onto the specimen, its diaphragm regulates resolution, contrast and depth of field.

About the numbers on the Objective

This post explains the meaning of the different engravings on an objective.

Sunflower stem, cross section.

Types of Objectives

This article gives you an overview of different types of microscope objectives, but I must note that a particular objective can fall into several categories at the same time. For educational work, parfocal, achromatic, bright field objectives are very common.

Enhancing Contrast

This article briefly outlines some contrast enhancing techniques that are used in microscopy.

Maize. Vascular tissue.

Lens Errors

Modern microscope optics correct a range of different lens errors or aberrations. Here is a short description of some common lens errors.

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